We can derive many formulas working in several coordinate systems. We give in the following pages formulas for:

Proofs for these formulas, as well as extra structures and other mathematical considerations, are explained at length in the whitepaper. The \((e,u)\) coordinates relate to the view of the curve as a Jacobi quartic, as explained in the relevant paper.

In all these formulas, the following apply:

  • The base curve \(E\) has equation \(y^2 = x(x^2 + ax + b)\). Group \(\mathbb{G}\) consists of the point of \(E\) which are not points of \(r\)-torsion.

  • The neutral is \(N = (0, 0)\). The group law is called "addition" and denoted as such. Group \(\mathbb{G}\) is homomorphic to the subgroup of points of \(r\)-torsion \(E[r]\) and thus has the same resistance to discrete logarithm.

  • In \((e, u)\) coordinates, the equation is \(e^2 = (a^2-4b)u^4 - 2au^2 + 1\). All curve points can now be used (not just \(r\)-torsion points). The neutral element of the group is represented by either \(N = (-1,0)\) or \(\mathbb{O} = (1,0)\) (the "point-at-infinity", which is not actually "at infinity" in this coordinate system).